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Authors: Y. Li, E. Worsey, S. Bleiker, P. Edinger, M. Kulreshath, Q. Tang, A.Y. Takabayashi, N. Quack, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, K.B. Gylfason, D. Pamunuwa, F. Niklaus
Title: Integrated 4-terminal Single-Contact Nanoelectromechanical Relays Implemented in a Silicon-On-Insulator Foundry Process
Format: International Journal
Publication date: 10/2023
Journal/Conference/Book: Nanoscale
Editor/Publisher: RCS Publishing, 
Volume(Issue): 15 p.17335-17341
DOI: 10.1039/D3NR03429A
Citations: 1 ( - last update: 21/7/2024)
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Integrated nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays can be used instead of transistors to implement ultra-low power logic circuits, due to their abrupt turn off characteristics and zero off-state leakage. Further, realizing circuits with 4-terminal (4-T) NEM relays enables significant reduction in circuit device count compared to conventional transistor circuits. For practical 4-T NEM circuits, however, the relays need to be miniaturized and integrated with high-density back-end-of-line (BEOL) interconnects, which is challenging and has not been realized to date. Here, we present electrostatically actuated silicon 4-T NEM relays that are integrated with multi-layer BEOL metal interconnects, implemented using a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) foundry process. We demonstrate 4-T switching and the use of body-biasing to reduce pull-in voltage of a relay with a 300 nm airgap, from 15.8 V to 7.8 V, consistent with predictions of the finite-element model. Our 4-T NEM relay technology enables new possibilities for realizing NEM-based circuits for applications demanding harsh environment computation and zero standby power, in industries such as automotive, Internet-of-Things, and aerospace.

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