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mid-infrared silicon-based waveguide circuit technology

Research Area: Mid IR silicon photonics , Silicon photonics for lab-on-chip spectroscopy

Main Researcher: Aditya Malik

Identification of a suitable waveguide platform is essential for building a complete mid-ir lab-on-a-chip system. For telecom wavelengths, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is the established waveguide platform because of mass manufacturing possibilities in CMOS pilot lines. The transparancy window of SOI waveguides is limited to 4 µm because the underlying oxide absorbs the longer wavelengths heavily. Low loss waveguides and spectrometers based on arrayed waveguide gratings and planar concave gratings have been demonstrated at 3.8 µm on SOI waveguides with 400 nm Si thickness.

Beyond 4 µm, several candidates like free standing Si, Si on Sapphire, Si on SiN and Ge-on-Si have been proposed in recent literature as alternatives for SOI. The major requirements for a waveguide platform for the mid-ir are (a) transparency in the wide mid-ir (b) straightforward fabrication scheme and (c) CMOS compatibility which will allow mass manufacturing. Ge-on-Si waveguides have a wide transparency range from 1.7 µm – 8 µm, can be fabricated very easily as shown below and are completely CMOS compatible. Low loss waveguides and several photonic components like MZIs, AWGs, PCGs have been demonstrated on this waveguide platform.

Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

PhD thesises


    International Journals

  1. E. Akiki, M. Verstuyft, B. Kuyken, B. Walter, M. Faucher, J.-F. Lampin, G. Ducournau, M. Vanwolleghem, High Q THz photonic crystal cavity on a low loss suspended Silicon platform, IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 11(1), p.42-53 (2021)  Download this Publication (3.9MB).
  2. N. Teigell Beneitez, Bettina Baumgartner, Jeroen Missinne, S. Radosavljevic, Dominik Wacht, Stefan Hugger, Paweł Leszcz, Bernard Lendl, G. Roelkens, Mid-IR sensing platform for trace analysis in aqueous solutions based on a germanium-on-silicon waveguide chip with a mesoporous silica coating for analyte enrichment, Optics Express, 28(18), p.27013-27027 doi:10.1364/OE.399646 (2020)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
  3. F. Pavanello, A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, G. Roelkens, Broadband Digital Fourier Transform Spectrometer for On-Chip Wavelength Monitoring in the 2.3-um Wavelength Range, IEEE Photonics Journal, 11(3), p.1-9 doi:10.1109/JPHOT.2019.2914013 (2019)  Download this Publication (3MB).
  4. A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, J. Allaert, J. Van Campenhout, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, Integrated Silicon-on-Insulator Spectrometer with Single Pixel Readout for Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 24(6), p.8300207 (7 pages) doi:10.1109/jstqe.2018.2820169 (2018)  Download this Publication (838KB).
  5. M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J.B. Rodriguez, G. Mashanovich, M. Smit, E. Tournie, G. Roelkens, III-V-on-silicon integrated micro-spectrometer for the 3 um wavelength range, Optics Express, 24(9), p.9465-9472 doi:10.1364/oe.24.009465 (2016).
  6. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Radosavljevic, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penades, G. Mashanovich, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R Loo, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, Silicon-based photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared, Procedia Engineering (invited), 140, p.144-151 doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.10.154 (2016)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
  7. R. Wang, S. Sprengel, M. Muneeb, G. Boehm, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, G. Roelkens, 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits, Optics Express, 23(20), United States, p.26834-26841 doi:10.1364/oe.23.026834 (2015)  Download this Publication (1.7MB).
  8. A. Subramanian, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P.C. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U.D. Dave, M. Muneeb, Pol Van Dorpe, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip , Photonics Research (invited), 5(3), p.B47 doi:10.1364/PRJ.3.000B47 (2015)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
  9. A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, G. Roelkens, Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared, Optics Express, 22(23), p.28479-28488 doi:10.1364/OE.22.028479 (2014)  Download this Publication (5.3MB).
  10. M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J.B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, W. Bogaerts, M. Smit, G. Roelkens, Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring, Optics Express, 22(22), p.27300-27308 doi:10.1364/oe.22.027300 (2014)  Download this Publication (4MB).
  11. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the Mid-Infrared, Applied Physics Letters, 103(16), p.161119 doi:10.1063/1.4826114 (2013)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  12. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 25(18), p.1805-1808 doi:10.1109/LPT.2013.2276479 (2013)  Download this Publication (2MB).
  13. M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Mashanovich, G. Roelkens, Demonstration of silicon on insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8um, Optics Express, 21(10), p.11659-11669 doi:10.1364/OE.21.011659 (2013)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
      International Conferences

    1. D. Wang, H. Kannojia, P. Jouy, E. Giraud, G. Steenberge, B. Kuyken, Mid-infrared dual-comb QCLs integrated with beam combiner based on Ge-on-Si platform, IEEE Silicon Photonics Conference (Formerly GFP Conference), United States, doi:10.1109/SiPhotonics55903.2023.10141936 (2022).
    2. G. Roelkens, III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits for sensing applications, IEEE Photonics Conference (invited), p.ThF1.4 (2021)  Download this Publication (9.2MB).
    3. G. Roelkens, III-V/S photonic integrated circuits and their applications in spectroscopy, Mid-infrared Optical Materials and Devices (invited), (2021)  Download this Publication (99KB).
    4. B. Baumgartner, N. Teigell Beneitez, Jeroen Missinne, S. Radosavljevic, Dominik Wacht, G. Roelkens, Bernhard Lendl, Porous Silica Enrichment Films on Integrated Waveguides for Broadband Mid-IR Spectroscopic Trace Analysis , OSA Optical Sensors and Sensing Congress 2021 (invited), (2021).
    5. N. Teigell Beneitez, Bettina Baumgartner, Jeroen Missinne, Bernhard Lend, Gunther Roelkens, Broadband Integrated Waveguide Sensor for trace analysis in the fingerprint Mid-IR range, SCIX2020, (2020).
    6. N. Teigell Beneitez, Jeroen Missinne, S. Radosavljevic, Bettina Baumgartner, Bernhard Lendl, G. Roelkens, Integrated Mid-IR Waveguide Sensor for Laser Based Trace Analysis in Aqueous Solutions, Optical Sensors and Sensing Congress, Canada, (2020).
    7. G. Roelkens, III-V/Si mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits and its applications, SPIE Photonics West Conference (invited), 11284, United States, p.paper 11284-46 (2020).
    8. A. Vasiliev, F. Pavanello, M. Muneeb, G. Roelkens, 2.3 μm wavelength range digital Fourier transform on-chip wavelength monitor, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), United States, p.STuO4.4 doi:10.1364/cleo_si.2019.stu4o.4 (2019)  Download this Publication (1.9MB).
    9. A. Vasiliev, F. Pavanello, M. Muneeb, J. Jurenczyk, A. Janaszek, M. Liebert, G. Roelkens, Novel approach for the integration of photonic circuits with Mid-IR detectors, Freiburg Infrared Colloquium, Germany, p.paper 8.4 (2019)  Download this Publication (350KB).
    10. G. Roelkens, R. Wang, A. Vasiliev, S. Radosavljevic, X. Jia, N. Teigell Beneitez, B. Haq, F. Pavanello, M. Muneeb, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, M.C. Amann, I. Simonyte, K. Vizbaras, A.Vizbaras, R. Baets, III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (invited), Mexico, p.FE1 doi:10.1109/group4.2018.8478755 (2018)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
    11. M. Lamy, J. Ftome, J. Weeber, G. Millot, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, M. Brun, P. Labeye, High speed optical transmission at 2um in subwavelength waveguides made of various materials , Advanced Photonics Congress, Switzerland, p.ITu4I.6 doi:10.1364/iprsn.2018.itu4i.6 (2018)  Download this Publication (435KB).
    12. R. Wang, S. Radosavljevic, A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, A. Malik, R. Baets, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, M.-C. Amann, I. Simonyte, A. Vizbaras, K.Vizbaras, G. Roelkens, III-V-on-silicon mid-IR photonic integrated circuits, 2nd Global Summit & Expo on Laser Optics & Photonics (invited), Italy, (2018)  Download this Publication (280KB).
    13. A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, J. Allaert, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, Integrated Silicon-on-Insulator AWG Spectrometer with Single Pixel Readout for 2.3 um Spectroscopy Applications, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, Spain, p.We.2.B.4-HRP (2018)  Download this Publication (290KB).
    14. S. Radosavljevic, N. Teigell Beneitez, A. Katumba, M. Muneeb, M. Vanslembrouck, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, A Widely Tunable Vernier Filter on a Ge-on-SOI Platform for Sensing Applications, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), United States, p.STh3I.7 doi:10.1364/cleo_si.2018.sth3i.7 (2018)  Download this Publication (638KB).
    15. A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. Tournié, G. Roelkens, 3.8 μm Heterogeneously Integrated III-V on Silicon Micro-Spectrometer, 18th European Conference in Integrated Optics 2016 (ECIO), Poland, p.paper ECIO/p-24 (2016)  Download this Publication (309KB).
    16. R. Wang, M. Muneeb, S. Sprengel, G. Boehm, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, G. Roelkens, SWIR InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well photodetectors and spectrometers integrated on SOI, SPIE Photonics West 2016, United States, doi:10.1117/12.2211802 (2016)  Download this Publication (554KB).
    17. J.S.Penades, Y.Hu, M.Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Malik, G. Roelkens, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, Angled MMI CWDM structure on Germanium on Silicon, 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO Europe), Germany, p.paper CK-7.2 TUE (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
    18. Z. Wang, A. Malik, B. Tian, M. Muneeb, Clement Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Yosuke Shimura, Roger Loo, J Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, Near/Mid-Infrared Heterogeneous Si Photonics, The 9th International Conference On Silicon Epitaxy And Heterostructures (invited), (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
    19. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Photonic Integrated Circuits, Proceedings of the 18th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Belenux Chapter, p.21-24 (2013).
    20. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Yosuke Shimura, J Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IPC), United States, p.paper MF 1.4 doi:10.1109/ipcon.2013.6656391 (2013)  Download this Publication (663KB).

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